Digital skills Digital skills are defined as a range of abilities
to use digital devices, communication applications, and networks to
access and manage information. They enable people to create and share
digital content, communicate and collaborate, and solve problems for
effective and creative self-fulfillment in life, learning, work, and
social activities at large[1].
Digital strategy A digital strategy establishes the overall
direction that a business will follow digitally. Key to the strategy is
the definition of the digital vision – it provides digital purpose,
aligns the organisation and is fundamental to the digital ambition of
the business. The digital strategy outlines the channels, assets,
platforms and tools required to achieve these objectives and deliver the
results. [2]
Digital transformation Digital transformation is characterized by a
fusion of advanced technologies and the integration of physical and
digital systems, the predominance of innovative business models and new
processes, and the creation of smart products and services.
Soft skills Skills that are cross-cutting across jobs and
sectors and relate to personal competences (confidence, discipline,
self-management) and social competences (teamwork, communication,
emotional intelligence)
Competence based approach A contemporary approach that standardizes and
integrates human resource management activities based on the
competencies that support the organisation’s strategy. Competency based
management is a long-term vision for bringing human capital into
strategic alignment and achieving empathy, competence, support of talent
and behaviors that bring high value to the organisation and support the
achievement of its business goals.
The introduction of the competency-based approach
makes it possible to integrate strategic HR and business plans into a
sustainable and comprehensive strategy for human development, to improve
internal processes and achieve high efficiency and competitiveness of
human resources.[5]
Right to disconnect The right to disconnect refers to a worker’s right
to be able to disengage from work and refrain from engaging in
work-related electronic communications, such as emails or other
messages, during non-work hours. This concept has developed as a result
of advancements in communication technologies and its impact on people’s
daily lives. The widespread use of smart phones and other digital
devices means that always being ‘on call’ has become a reality in many
workplaces, as continuous remote access can create pressure for
employees to be constantly accessible.[6]
ICT-based mobile work ICT-based mobile work can be defined as the use of
information and communications technologies, such as smartphones,
tablets, laptops and/or desktop computers, for work that is performed
outside the employer’s premises.  For most employees, mobile work could
be considered a variation of telework, where workers carry out their job
from a fixed location outside the employer’s premises. The difference is
that ICT-based mobile workers work in a range of locations and
specifically use ICT to connect to shared enterprise computer systems.
Different levels of telework/ICT mobile work intensity and range of
places at which individuals work might potentially have different
consequences for working conditions.
Mobile working Work arrangements that allow employees to freely
conduct work at any location away from the main employer’s workplace,
with full access to the information, people, and systems they need in
order to complete their work (e.g., community nurse).[7]
Telework ‘… a form of organising and/or performing work,
using information technology, in the context of an employment
contract/relationship, where work that could be performed at the
employer’s premises is carried out away from those premises on a regular
Platform work Platform work is an employment form in which
organisations or individuals use an online platform to access
other organisations or individuals to solve specific problems or to
provide specific services in exchange for payment
Lean production Lean manufacturing (also known as lean
, just-in-time manufacturing and just-in-time
, or JIT) is a
production method
aimed primarily at reducing times within the
production system as well as response times from suppliers and to
It is derived from Toyota‘s 1930 operating model “The
Toyota Way
” (Toyota
Production System
, TPS). The term “Lean” was coined in 1988 by
John Krafcik
, and defined in 1996 by
James Womack
Daniel Jones
to consist of five key principles: “Precisely specify
value by specific product, identify the value stream for each product,
make value flow without interruptions, let customer pull value from the
producer, and pursue perfection.”[10]
Just in time production Just-in-time production minimises the time,
labour, and materials in a manufacturing process. It does so by only
producing goods as they are needed. The desired outcome is a streamlined
production system that maintains a minimal amount of on-site raw
materials, minimal wait times in the production process, and small batch
Total Quality Management Total quality management (TQM) is the continual
process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in
manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management, improving the
customer experience, and ensuring that employees are up to speed with
training. Total quality management aims to hold all parties involved in
the production process accountable for the overall quality of the final
product or service.
World Class Manufacturing World class manufacturing is the philosophy of
being the best, the fastest, and the lowest cost producer of a product
or service. It implies the constant improvement of products, process and
service to remain an industry leader and provide the best choice for
customers, regardless of where they are in the process.[13]
Workplace Innovation ‘Workplace Innovation’ defines evidence-based
organisational practices that enable employees at every level to use and
develop their skills, knowledge, experience and creativity to the
fullest possible extent, simultaneously enhancing business performance,
engagement and well-being.[14]
Artificial intelligence (AI) AI is not a single technology. It is an
umbrella term that includes any type of software or hardware
component that supports machine learning, computer vision, natural
language understanding (NLU) and natural language processing (NLP)
1. The ability of a digital computer or
computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with
intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of
developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes
characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover
meaning, generalise, or learn from past experience

2. The theory and development of computer systems
able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as
visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation
between languages.[17]

3. Artificial intelligence (AI), also known as
machine intelligence, is a branch of computer science that focuses on
building and managing technology that can learn to autonomously make
decisions and carry out actions on behalf of a human being

[3] European Commission 2019